What Are Teratogenic Drugs?

What are teratogens in pharmacognosy?

Teratogenic drugs: A teratogen is an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus.

Teratogens halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital malformation (a birth defect).

Classes of teratogens include radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs..

When a drug is teratogenic What is the risk for harm to the fetus?

Drugs reaching the fetus during this stage may cause a miscarriage, an obvious birth defect, or a permanent but subtle defect, that is noticed later in life. At 9th week the embryo is referred to as a fetus. Development during this time is primarily maturation and growth.

What are teratogens give 5 examples?

This page describes harmful substances, called teratogens, which a woman should avoid during pregnancy. These include certain chemicals, medications, social drugs, alcohol, smoking, and infections.

Is caffeine a teratogen?

In humans, caffeine does not present any teratogenic risk. The increased risk of the most common congenital malformations entailed by moderate consumption of caffeine is very slight.

What are the three most common teratogens?

Known Teratogensangiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as Zestril and Prinivil.alcohol.aminopterin.androgens, such as methyltestosterone (Android)busulfan (Myleran)carbamazepine (Tegretol)chlorobiphenyls.cocaine.More items…•

Is a virus a teratogen?

Many viruses can be transmitted to the fetus and cause infection and tissure damage. Five viruses are known to be teratogenic in humans: cytomegalovirus, rubella, herpes simplex, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and varicella viruses.

What is the most damaging teratogen?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): One of the most potentially devastating teratogens is HIV. HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are leading causes of illness and death in the United States (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2015).

Which period of pregnancy is the most crucial?

First Trimester (0 to 13 Weeks) The first trimester is the most crucial to your baby’s development. During this period, your baby’s body structure and organ systems develop. Most miscarriages and birth defects occur during this period.

Are cigarettes teratogenic?

Types of Teratogens Perhaps the two most important teratogens today are alcohol and smoking. They are among the leading preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities.

What is an example of a teratogen?

Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or fetus after the pregnant woman is exposed to the substance. Alcohol and cocaine are examples of such substances. … The word teratogen originates from the Greek word for monster, teratos.

What are 2 common teratogens?

Teratogenic agents include infectious agents (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.); physical agents (ionizing agents, hyperthermia); maternal health factors (diabetes, maternal PKU); environmental chemicals (organic mercury compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB, …

What can teratogenic drugs cause?

Certain drugs such as alcohol, some illegal drugs, and some prescription and over-the-counter medications are known to cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Drugs that can cause birth defects are called ‘teratogens’. A teratogen is a substance that interferes with the normal development of a fetus.

Are antibiotics teratogenic?

Some antibiotics are known to be teratogenic and should be avoided entirely during pregnancy. These include streptomycin and kanamycin (which may cause hearing loss) and tetracycline (which can lead to weakening, hypoplasia, and discoloration of long bones and teeth).

What is the most common teratogen?

The most common malformations include craniofacial dysmorphisms, cleft palate, thymic aplasia, and neural tube defects. The tranquilizer thalidomide is one of the most famous and notorious teratogens.

Is stress a teratogen?

Maternal psychological stress has essentially been conceptualized as a teratogen, that is, an agent that can generate deleterious perinatal and/or developmental outcomes.